Scientists reveal how certain animals are capable of performing remarkable acts of regeneration of the entire body, and they have identified a number of DNA switches that appear to control the genes used in the process, as published in Science.
The salamander can grow the hind limbs, the geckos can knock their tails when threatened and grow them, while other animals, such as planetary worms, jellyfish and sea anemones, can regenerate their bodies after being cut in half.
Using three worms of Panther bruises, which currently represent a new model system for the study of regeneration, to test the process, Mansi Seristavta, Andrew Gehrke and colleagues found a segment of DNA control not encoding the activation of the early gene response, actively controlling a number of other processes by gene replacement Other or off or off as if it is a main power switch.
As many as 18,000 regions change the dynamic nature of the genome during regeneration. The DNA of a worm that is usually tightly folded and compressed must change to make new areas available for operation for this process, the physical genome becomes more open, as there are regulatory switches in which genes must be turned on / off.
EGR transmits a primary power switch to regeneration, once it is active and other processes can occur, without being active nothing can happen. Decreased activity in this gene was found to inhibit regeneration; All downstream genes will not work, so none of the other switches will work.
This gene is called EGR because, when observed in its sequence, it is similar to the gene studied in humans and other animals. These human cells in the cooked dish if stressed will express EGR immediately. The question remains if humans can run the Egr when our cells are injured and why can not we regenerate as well? "The answer can be whether EGR is the power switch, we may have different wiring, and EGR talking in human cells can talk to something else in three banded panther worms." We want to understand these connections and apply them to other animals, including vertebrates that only can do Limited renewal ". Explains Srivastava.
In future work, the group plans to investigate whether genetic switches triggered during regeneration are those used by themselves during development, and to continue working towards a better understanding of the dynamic nature of the genome. They also work to understand how EGR and other genes are applied during the process for worms and other species.
"About 2% of the genome does things like proteins, we want to know what other 98% do during the entire body regeneration. We know that many changes in DNA that cause diseases are found in non-coding areas, but these have not been properly evaluated for processes such as regeneration of the entire body.We have just scratched the surface looking at some of these switches but there is another aspect of how the genome is interacting This is not just some open / closed pieces, and all this is important for turning genes on / off, there are multiple layers to the nature of this regulation. " Adds groaning.
"Many species can regenerate, and many can not, but if genomes are compared to all animals, most of the genes we have are also present in the three Panterian worms, some of which will not come if there are genes, but how they are connected, – encoding of the genome ". According to Srivastava.