Damages in diamonds may make it less expensive for jewelry collectors or women who are just engaged, but for scientists, these tiny flaws only make it more expensive.
Deep inside the earth's crust, tiny grains of minerals are trapped in these beautiful rocks. These are considered defects in the jewelry trade, but the scientists analyze these defects to learn about environmental conditions when the rock is formed.
"We found a way to use the aftermath of sulfur from ancient volcanoes that made their way into the mantle and finally into diamonds to provide evidence for a particular process of the continent," he said.
Karen Smith, of the Gemological Institute of America and lead author of the study, in the Carnegie Endowment Report.
Under the surface of the earth, at 93 to 124 km (150 to 200 km), there are configurations known as shell glove to stabilize the continental crust
. For these cheerful kyels to preserve the landmass even between the destructive tectonic activity of the planet, the material that makes up these mantle kantels should thicken, stabilize, and cool beneath the continent.
The question is: How? Scientists argue about the answer, with a few kilometers indicating the scales produced by subduction, which when one tectonic plate slides under another and sinks into the depths of the ocean. On the other hand, others claim that they are formed by a hot trend rising from the depths of the earth.
How to understand how envelope wrapping is an important part of the union of continental history and learning about their enduring survival, according to the Steve Steve Shiri of Carnegie.
"Since this is the only rocky planet we know, understanding the geology of our continents is a crucial part of distinguishing what makes the Earth habitable," Shiri added.
Diamonds are the geologist's best friend
Fortunately, diamonds can help answer this question since these rocks sparkle form inside these housings keels. By studying the mineral grains embedded in diamonds – known as defects or inclusions – scientists can reveal the nature and origins of the mantle hooks from which the diamond comes.
For the published study
In the journal Science
, Scientists analyzed the sulfur-rich minerals embedded in diamonds from Sierra Leone and discovered that there were two sub-events in the history of the region.
The researchers concluded that the chemistry of mineral grains within the diamond was recently seen on Earth
More than 2.5 billion years ago, before oxygen even became abundant in the atmosphere. Thus, the sulfur of the mineral inclusions must be found on the surface in the past and then made its way to the mantle by the process of reduction.
Diamonds in Botswana have shown similar evidence, but diamonds from northern Canada have not. The researchers claim that the mantle in the last area may be formed in a different process that did not include surface material.
"Our work shows that sulfur inclusions in diamonds are a powerful tool to explore the construction processes on the continent," Smit said.