The Arctic experienced the "unprecedented transition in history" in terms of warming temperatures and melting ice, and these changes could be the cause of extreme weather in the world, according to the Arctic Report.
The annual report published on Tuesday said that the rapid warming over the past three decades has led to a 95 percent drop in Arctic's oldest and deepest ice, when the world's leaders gather at the UN climate summit in Poland this week, October 2003 by the International Committee on Climate Change.
Melting of the sea ice is one of the most prominent examples of climate change in the North Pole, and scientists say it could be a catalyst for extreme environmental events around the world.
According to NOAA, the Arctic is warming twice as fast as the rest of the Earth, dissolving some of the oldest ice in the region. This old ice is resistant to melting and helps keep the Arctic Arctic in summer, with most of the ice melting, says Emily Osborne, chief editor of the report and researcher with the NoAA Arctic Research Program.
"When the observations began in the 1970s, we had about 16 percent of the ice coverage in the Arctic [that] Was very old or more than four years old, "she says Here now"Robin Young". "And this year we see it … less than one percent of Arctic ice ice is very old, perennial ice."
Scientists have observed low levels of sea waves in the Bering Sea, outside Western Alaska, during the winter, when ice is supposed to accumulate, according to the report.But instead, Bering Sea has lost an ice-sized piece of Idaho.
Without sea ice cover to divert sunlight, the ocean will absorb more sunlight and the planet will continue to be warmer, says Osborne. According to the report, Arctic sea temperatures are rising and marine ice levels are falling at rates not seen in the past 1,500 years.
The ice-melt sea does not directly lead to an increase in sea level, but Arctic's warmer ocean temperatures can, says Robert Graham, a climate scientist at the Norwegian Polar Institute.
"This melting will not affect the rise of the sea itself because the ice is already in the ocean," Graham said Here nowRemy Hobson earlier this year. "But if it leads to a large warming zone of the North Pole, you can start melting the country glaciers on Greenland that could contribute to an increase in the sea level."
Along with the lack of ice and rising temperatures, Osborne says algae and harmful algae in the Arctic are poisoning marine life and affect coastal communities that rely on the ocean for their economic survival.
Arctic temperatures can also change the behavior of a jet stream, atmospheric currents that affect global weather, says Osborne. A wavy jet stream can cause extreme weather, such as the winter storms of the US last year and an unusual cold sound in Europe this March known as the "beast from the east".
"When the Arctic warms up at this fast pace, the jet stream is actually slowing, and the slower it slows, the more it generates these vibrations, She says. "When we have a pattern of this wavy jet stream, which can really persist as we have seen in 2018 for months at a time, we have these different air masses that really reach different parts of the world."
The report also found that northern populations and plant populations have declined by 56% in the past two decades due to environmental changes in the Arctic region and microplastic is gaining in higher concentrations in the Arctic than in any other sea basins.
As Arctic ice continues to melt, opening new waterways in the Arctic can also have geopolitical consequences as countries compete for new resources, says Osborne. It can also leave the northern border of the US and Alaska more vulnerable.
Nevertheless, the US joined Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Russia in refusing to ratify the IPCC report, and President Trump also said that he would withdraw from the United States from the Paris agreement.
Despite lack of support for Washington, Osborne says scientists are focusing on arming people in the "zero ground climate change", such as those living in the Arctic, with this information so they can adapt to environmental changes.
"I would not say it was too late," she says. "I'm not willing to give up hope."