It has been 39 years since the first reported cases of HIV / AIDS, initially limited to groups gays. Today, HIV infection has significantly changed its characteristics and profile, presenting different extremes depending on the geographical area being analyzed.
Today, HIV has become a chronic disease that has control, but not cures, where life expectancy may be similar to those of those who do not have the virus.
Over the past decade there has been a dramatic increase in HIV-infected people, which continues to grow with more than 2.5 million new cases each year around the world, affecting young people whose main route of transmission is still sexual. This is the epidemiological situation in our country: According to UNAIDS 'AIDS Endings' report, unlike other Latin American countries, Chile has a 34% increase in new infections among adults since 2010.
In the same year, 2,986 new cases were registered and in 2017 there were 5,216 new HIV registrations, an increase of 96%. With rapid test execution, epidemiologists estimate that by the end of 2018 we could have 8,000 cases of people with HIV.
It should be noted that the global HIV / AIDS policy over the past decade has indicated a new prevention prevention that focuses on the identification and treatment of people infected with HIV, especially among key populations or target populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM), sex workers, and other vulnerable populations.
In a recent publication, the continuity and changes in these strategies were reviewed in 2005 through 2015. 65 articles based on prevention, approaches, testing strategies and participation of NGOs and community organizations were examined. The analysis found this new approach, which is reflected extensively and in the dispersion of the tests proposed for diagnosis; The little importance of advice or advice; Emphasis is placed on the use of a condom associated with the test results, not as a strategy of self-care and a certain lack of active participation by NGOs in implementing responses in cases of people with AIDS.
A number of publications have shown a decrease in the barriers available for testing and treatment. For example, prevention of HIV testing in clinical, epidemiological, and qualitative studies emphasizes a combination of rapid diagnosis and early treatment, but does not address issues related to sexuality and the consistent use of condoms. Was followed by the use of a retroviolent dose against unprotected risk ratios, a program that showed selective prevention. It has been researched by several groups and experts that the other side of the coin is that there is now a significant increase in other infections transmitted in sex, such as syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, herpes and confectionery.
In conclusion, there is a systematic lack of treatment of possible ethical, political and cultural issues. In addition, around HIV testing as a strategy for controlling the epidemic, the findings reinforce the critique of the biomedicalization of current policy and emphasize the importance of combining progress achieved with an approach to diagnosis and treatment with those achieved through condom use and individual self-management of risk perception prevention.
Dr. Erica Castro, academic and researcher
Santiago de Chile, December 13, 2018