Saturday , October 1 2022

Five genetic advantages that very few have [Ciencia] – 11/18/2018


London- Science fiction is replete with heroes who have supernatural gifts. But the truth is that some ordinary people also have special forces and often do not know.

It is about the genetic benefits that a very small part of the population has.

These benefits derive from genetic mutation, a natural process that changes our DNA.

Just like some hereditary hereditary diseases, others have more luck and inherit genes that give them extraordinary abilities.

BBC Mundo gives us five examples of how many benefits you can get thanks for your genes.

1. Perfect underwater vision

Most of us see everything blurred if we open our eyes when we are immersed in water.

The reason for this is a problem in physics: the water density is similar to that of the eye fluid, and the returning light can not enter the eye well.

This is why humans can usually only see when we are in contact with the air.

But there is one exception: the people of Mockan, who live in the Andaman Sea, a branch of the Indian Ocean between Burma and Thailand.

This tribe is known as the "gypsy sea" because they spend most of the year living in huts on water or in boats, and only go to land to stock on supplies.

If you have landscaped gardens you can see crystal clear underwater.

It is believed that this genetic mutation arose because it was spent spending a lot of time underwater, collecting food from the sea and fishing spear at the bottom of the sea.

A scientific study published in 2003 in the journal Current Biology revealed that the genetic mutation of the moken makes their eyes transform underwater.

This allows the light to reflect properly while entering your eyes and allows you to see clearly, even submerged more than 20 meters underwater.

2. Tolerance to the cold

Another genetic advantage observed in some indigenous peoples is related to the ability to withstand low temperatures.

The human body has a normal range of temperature ranging from 36.5 and 37.5.. That is why most people are better prepared to deal with a warmer climate than a cold climate.

A normal body can not withstand extreme cold. But there are some populations that have this ability, thanks to their special genes.

Tribes like the Inuit, which inhabit the North Pole, or Nantes, who live in northern Russia, have adapted to freezing temperatures.

Their bodies react differently to the cold, because they are produced biologically differently from the rest.

For example, they do not tremble from the cold, they have less sweat glands, their skin is much warmer than usual and the metabolism has much higher.

These skills are only genetic: if you move to the middle of the North Pole and live there for decades, you will not be able to acquire the amazing abilities of the people who carry these mutations.

3. Less hours of sleep

One skill you can, without belonging to any tribe, is to work well with fewer hours of sleep than usual.

Several studies have shown that most people need to sleep between 7 and 9 hours to be able to feel rested.

Less sleep can cause problems of concentration and health, both physically and mentally.

However, a study conducted with twins in 2014 led the American Academy of Sleep Medicine to discover that there is a genetic mutation that allows some people to have fewer hours of sleep.

People with the DEC2 mutant gene have the ability to have more intense REM sleep, which makes Sharm more effective.

With 6 hours of sleep or less you feel totally inferior and ready to deal with the day.

However, experts make it clear that this mutation affects a very small percentage of people – less than 1% of those reported for a small sleep.

So, if you sleep a little and you think you will be fine because you may have the genetic mutation, it is more likely that it is not so and you need more hours of rest.

4. Closer bones

This advantage seems to come out of a comics hero. The figure can be called "man or woman with strong bones".

Most of our skeletons lose bone density as we age. It is known as osteoporosis and can create bone fractures and deformations.

But there are some people who have a mutation in a gene called SOST, which controls the protein sclerostin, which regulates and controls the growth of the bones.

A study conducted by research and development scientists at Chiroscience in Bothell, Washington, found that those who have this mutation do not lose bone mass as they age.

Their bones continue to accumulate density and mass as time passes, giving them the skeleton of a much younger person.

This mutation was found in several people of African origin, as Dutch-born populations living in South Africa are known.

Now scientists are looking for ways to replicate this mutation to allow other people to reverse the aging of their skeletons.

5. Adaptation to heights

The Andean communities call it "Sorok" and anyone who suffered it will not forget it easily. It is the discomfort that is felt at high altitude by the lack of oxygen.

This altitude sickness or mountain sickness usually causes dizziness, low pressure, headaches and respiratory disorders.

There are many tricks you may want to avoid: move slowly, eat little, do not make great efforts, chew coke. Medicines should be applied. But the truth is that even so many fall "apunados".

However, this is not a problem that affects the living populations in the mountains.

Studies conducted on the Quechua of the Andes and the Himalayan Tibetans have shown that they have genetic advantages which have enabled them to adapt to their environment.

Their tendons are large and have greater lung capacity, allowing them to combine more oxygen with each inspiration.

And while most people produce more red blood cells when their body gets smaller oxygen, they produce less.

These characteristics are maintained even when these populations move to lower places, as they are part of their genes.

Perhaps this mutation does not make them officially "heroes" but more than a tourist who is struggling to climb the mountain at the rate of an ant and is taken over by a place running up – sometimes carrying several bags – no doubt he believes they have powers.

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