Other factors such as computer games and the level of learning of the mother seem to affect the disease, which is estimated that by 2050 it will affect 4.758 million people around the world. This was indicated by this applied twin study.
Myopia was explained, in agreement, by hereditary factors.
Being born in the summer and hours devoted to computer games are associated with an increased risk of myopia in childhood, according to a study of twins published in the digital editionBritish Journal of Ophthalmology& # 39; But fertility treatments can be protective, according to the findings. (Read: Most common eye diseases in Colombians)
Myopia is defined as refraction, meaning that the eye can not focus the light properly, causing nearby objects to be clear, but distant objects appear blurry. And this is a disease that is becoming increasingly common: it is likely that 4,758 million people worldwide will be affected in 2050, compared with 1,950 million in 2010.
It can be corrected with glasses, laser surgery or contact lenses, but the situation is associated with an increased risk of visual deterioration and visual loss in later life.
It is thought that genes have a role in the disorder, but they do not fully explain the increasing prevalence. And given the rapid development of the eyes at the beginning of life, the researchers wanted to investigate environmental factors and contributors throughout life.
These experts studied twins who were 16.7 years old on average. The twins were all born between 1994 and 1996 in Britain,Early development study of long-term twins " (TEDS, for its initials in English).
Opticians provided information on their eye exams on myopia, and the researchers analyzed the demographic, social, economic, educational, and behavioral factors in pairs of twins when these children had 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 years , To capture critical stages of child and eye development.
Parents and teachers completed exhaustive questionnaires and the twins conducted web-based assessments to provide a wide range of potential information and relevance to the factors that can influence the development of early life.
The average age at which children with nearsightedness began to wear glasses to correct the situation was 11 years. One in 20 (5.4%) had a "lazy eye" (amblyopia) and a similar rate (almost 4.5%) was strabismus. In total, one in four (26%) of the twins was short.
The most related factors for the development of nearsightedness at different points of time were the educational success of the mother (university or graduate student), hours devoted to computer games and birth during the summer. The hours of playing computer games may not only be related to close work, but also less time out, a factor that has been associated with an increased risk of nearsightedness.
The study results were also linked to nearsightedness, and as a child in Britain, born in the summer months, will start school at a younger age than those born in the winter, scientists suggest that this close work may accelerate the growth of the eyes, which is responsible for nearsightedness.
Less nearsightedness in children born after fertility treatments
Higher levels of household income and intelligence, especially verbal skill scores, were associated with a higher risk, but to a lesser extent. Infertility treatment seems to offer protection against myopia was associated with a low risk of 25-30 percent.
The researchers, my friends Ophthalmology Department of King's College London & # 39;, In London, the UK, speculate that children born as a result of fertility treatment are often born small and slightly earlier, and may have some level of developmental delay, which can explain shorter eye length less than nearsightedness.
However, this is observational study, and as such, it is impossible to determine a cause, say the researchers, noting that future research may be able to analyze the interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental influences.