Thursday , August 18 2022

NASA's InSight Robot is listening to earthquakes.Here's why it rocks



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The InSight robot, which is here to be deployed in the testing phase on a lab on Earth.NASA / JPL-Caltech / Lockheed Martin

Breathed a sigh of relief: NASA InSight Robot& nbsp; – It is the study of the interior using robot seismic investigations – is now the presence of eight robotic function on Mars. At the time of writing, it was Just touched the surface On Elysium Planitia, and would move home, much to the delight of thousands of scientists and engineers all over the world who helped piece this little creature together.

As a geologist, I could not get more excited. Much has been done on the assignment & nbsp; To be able to give to Mars First medical examination since she was born More than 4 billion years ago, and one way in which it is about to do so is to deploy its integrated seismometer. Very similar to those on Earth, but are directed to be indisputably sensitive, the so-called SEIS device Will pick up on all the neighbor rumblings our crimson may offer.

The fact that we are conducting geological experiments on a completely different planet, the one you are standing on, is completely extraordinary in itself. & Nbsp; Says that it is still fair enough to ask why we should want to know about earthquakes in another planet in the first place, especially if you are not a seismologist or planetary geologist – so let me give you some thoughts and answers on this.

First, they will not be called earthquakes on Mars. They are quite adequate & nbsp; & Nbsp;Marescakes, Which is not just for geographical reasons: we have a very bad idea about what kind of seismic noises we are expected to expect on Mars, but they are not likely to have carbon copies of those on Earth.

Here's why.

In terms of tectonic activity, Mars had no award-winning history, at least if you compared it to Earth. Although scientists are still looking at the details, it is quite clear that the tectonic technique of our blue dot was suitable for those of our neighbor.

Earth has Functional tectonics plate, And it has done so for anywhere between 600 million and 3.5 billion years. This process – in which fragments of the crust and upper shell drift, collide, crash, diverge or diverge – that is, we get massive mountain ranges, sea basins, erupting volcanoes and Colossal earthquakes. As I said a few times before, it is The engine that drives our planet; He is responsible for what you see around you on the surface.

In crude terms, plate tectonics are activated by two sources of heat escaping into the space from the bottom of the planet: the ancient embers left from Earth's formation 4.54 billion years ago, and the decay in radioactive materials. We can not live on a particularly massive world, but it is big enough to ensure that this heat takes the time to reach the surface, and we have probably got billions of years of plate tectonics left before & nbsp; This thermal "fuel" is dry.

Mars is completely different. From what we've seen on his surface from satellites and other riders and marines, it seems that the tectonics of her plate never really started, or they did a little before grinding. Today, Mars has no distinctly defined continents or tectonic plates like Earth; it could be Two separate plates, But it's not safe.

It is not clear why this story of two very different geological entities exists. Although it also contains both heat sources, it happens Just over half the size of the earth& nbsp; (For reasons scientists did not quite certainly answered). This means that much more heat has a chance to escape into the dark star ocean over, which is likely the driving feature of the plate tectonics on Mars became irritated.

Then there is water. This is all the place & nbsp; And any substance that knows something is a major driver of the plate tectonics, at least on Earth. Without water entering the cutting areas – when one colder and colder plate falls under a less dense plate – the Earth will be a much less geologically interesting place. Water escaping from tectonic plates descends, fundamentally reducing the chemistry of the shell wedge above it, forming an incredibly complex volcanic and geochemically developed crust.

Liquid water on Mars is difficult to reach. Flood-like and river-like precipitation features indicate that the water flowed freely across the red planet, which was much warmer when it was covered with a considerable atmosphere. NASA thinks that when The planet's magnetic field failed A long time ago, the solar wind raided this atmosphere, and liquid water could no longer remain stable on the surface.

Sure, some water is locked Underwater lakes and Inside Mars minerals, But compared to Earth, the surface is cold and dry. Perhaps, then, the tectonic plate on Mars failed because it The running water ran out.

This is a complex story without many concrete answers, and both factors played a role. In any case, Mars is a world now lacking an active plate tectonics. Once, it featured upwelling feathers of a shell material capable of decompress and running an extensive mass in the membrane, making several Volcanoes are truly impressive. Today, the internal and vocal ardor means that her longings are sent to the past. These characteristics also mean that no large vibrations along tectonic boundaries will ever take place again.

We often associate earthquakes with a plate tectonics on Earth. Despite the need to create the largest of the lot, you can still get earthquakes even without tectonic plates engaged in constant struggle, because the rocks are not very good to stay quietly.

For this reason, she suspects that Mars also has vibrations. Frozen in spite of its geology, the planet still cracks cracks, even just a little, meaning that tiny shocks will still happen. Right now, no one is sure exactly what these vibrations will be like or how many times they will occur – and this is where InSight comes in.

Tech that could detect tremors existed on some other Marines of Mars, but they were not exactly ideally designed: one thing, these seismometer swayed in the spirit of Mars. Fortunately, the sensitivity and sophistication of InSight's SEIS device, which is protected from wind swings and even surface temperatures, is beyond comparison. We, for the first time, will be able to monitor the hooks a lot in a way that we can identify and understand earthquakes, different though the two may be. We can also detect when meteorites will hit Mars, whose effects will send ripples through the membrane.

The SEIS is not just about finding and perceiving alien vibrations. The seismic vibrations help us understand what the planets are actually doing. These waves move in different ways using different materials, and we can use this information to figure out what is complicated beneath the surface. It is mainly because of the seismology that we know that Earth has a solid inner core, an outer core rich in liquid iron, a solid but permeable housings, and so on.

The moon, geological dead wheel, also features His own earthquakes, Which can "ring" along the tiny natural satellite for hours at a time. No wonder, then, that Apollo The missions contained a number of seismometers that hoped to pick up these shakes: as well as being different from earthquakes we have on Earth, they can also be used to reveal what the moon's stomach is made of. Once, impatiently Apollo Astronauts did not stop there; they also used explosives Missile parts crashed On the moon surface send waves of pressure through the face of the moon to visualize its surface.

InSight is not going to blow up pieces of Mars and create its own artificial vibrations, but it will be in the coming months and years, keeping its unprecedented high-tech ear on the ground, looking for Mars – all in the name of understanding what makes Mars and Teak and why its planetary destiny turned out to be so different Very much from that of the earth.

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The InSight robot, which is here to be deployed in the testing phase on a lab on Earth.NASA / JPL-Caltech / Lockheed Martin

Breathing a heavy sigh of relief: NASA's Insight Robot – this is the study of the interior using a robot seismic investigations – is now the eighth robotic function on Mars.At the time of writing, it only touched the surface on Elysium Planitia, and he was moving home, Thousands of scientists and engineers all over the world have helped this piece of creature piece together.

As a geologist, I could not get more excited. Much has been done on the mission to be able to give Mars its first health check since it was born more than 4 billion years ago, and one way in which it is going to do this is to deploy its integrated seismometer. Like those on earth, but intent on being indisputably sensitive, the SEIS would supposedly pick up all the ramifications our neighbor, the crimson wing, might suggest.

The fact that we are conducting geological experiments on a planet quite different from the one on which you stand now is quite remarkable. When you say this, it is still fair enough to ask why we should want to know about earthquakes on another planet in the first place, especially if you are not a seismologist or planetary geologist – so let me give you some thoughts and answers on this.

First, they will not be called earthquakes on Mars. It is not only for geographical reasons: we have a very bad idea about what kind of seismic noise we are expected to see on Mars, but they are not likely to be carbon copies of those on Earth.

Here's why.

In terms of tectonic activity, Mars had no award-winning history, at least if you compared it to Earth. Although scientists are still looking at the details, it is quite clear that the tectonic technique of our blue dot was suitable for those of our neighbor.

Earth acts as a functional tectonics dish, and it has done so for anywhere between 600 million and 3.5 billion years. This process – in which segments of the crust and upper cocoon drift around, collide, grind upwards, drift away or dive under each other – that is, we get massive mountain ranges, sea basins, erupting volcanoes, colossal earthquakes. As I have said several times before, it is the engine that drives our planet; He is responsible for what you see around you on the surface.

In crude terms, plate tectonics are activated by two sources of heat escaping into the space from the bottom of the planet: the ancient embers left from Earth's formation 4.54 billion years ago, and the decay in radioactive materials. We can not live on a particularly massive world, but it is big enough to ensure that this heat takes the time to reach the surface, and we have probably got billions of years of plate tectonics remaining before this thermal "fuel" runs dry.

Mars is completely different. From what we've seen on his surface from satellites and other riders and marines, it seems that the tectonics of her plate never really started, or they did a little before grinding. Today, Mars has no distinctly defined continents or tectonic plates like Earth; It can be two separate plates, but it is not safe.

It is not clear why this story of two very different geological entities exists. Although it also contains both heat sources, it happens to be just over half the size of the earth (scientists reasons are not quite answered definitely). This means that much more heat has a chance to escape into the dark star ocean over, which is likely the driving feature of the plate tectonics on Mars became irritated.

Then there is water. This material is known everywhere and it is something that is key to plate tectonics, at least on Earth. Without water entering the cutting areas – when one colder and colder plate falls under a less dense plate – the Earth will be a much less geologically interesting place. Water escaping from tectonic plates descends, fundamentally reducing the chemistry of the shell wedge above it, forming an incredibly complex volcanic and geochemically developed crust.

Liquid water on Mars is difficult to reach. Flood-like and river-like precipitation features indicate that the water flowed freely across the red planet, which was much warmer when it was covered with a considerable atmosphere. NASA thinks that when the planet's magnetic field failed a long time ago, the solar wind raised this atmosphere, and liquid water could no longer remain stable on the surface.

Of course, some water locked in subclacial lakes and inside Mars minerals, but compared to the earth, the surface is cold and dry. Perhaps, then, the tectonic plate on Mars fails because it is over of liquid water.

This is a complex story without many concrete answers, and both factors played a role. In any case, Mars is a world now lacking an active plate tectonics. Once upon a time, it was featured in upwelling feathers of mantle material capable of decompress and running huge melts in the crust, making some volcanoes truly impressive. Today, the internal and vocal ardor means that her longings are sent to the past. These characteristics also mean that no large vibrations along tectonic boundaries will ever take place again.

We often associate earthquakes with a plate tectonics on Earth. Despite the need to create the largest of the lot, you can still get earthquakes even without tectonic plates engaged in constant struggle, because the rocks are not very good to stay quietly.

For this reason, it is suspected that Mars has vibrations too. Frozen in spite of its geology, the planet still cracks cracks, even just a little, meaning that tiny shocks will still happen. Right now, no one is sure exactly what these vibrations will be like or how many times they will occur – and this is where InSight comes in.

Tech that could detect tremors existed on some other Marines of Mars, but they were not exactly ideally designed: one thing, these seismometer swayed in the spirit of Mars. Fortunately, the sensitivity and sophistication of InSight's SEIS device, which is protected from wind swings and even surface temperatures, is beyond comparison. We, for the first time, will be able to monitor the hooks a lot in a way that we can identify and understand earthquakes, different though the two may be. We can also detect when meteorites will hit Mars, whose effects will send ripples through the membrane.

The SEIS is not satisfied with the detection and vibration of aliens. Seismic vibrations help us understand what the planets actually do. These waves move in different ways using different materials, and we can use this information to figure out what is complicated beneath the surface. It is mainly because of the seismology that we know that Earth has a solid inner core, an outer core rich in liquid iron, a solid but permeable housings, and so on.

The moon, geologically dead wheel, also includes its own moon, which can "ring" along the tiny natural satellite for hours at a time. No wonder, then, that Apollo The missions contained a number of seismometers that hoped to pick up these shakes: as well as being different from earthquakes we have on Earth, they can also be used to reveal what the moon's stomach is made of. Once, impatiently Apollo Astronauts did not stop there; they also used explosives and missile parts to crash across the moon to send pressure waves through the moon's interior to visualize the surface.

InSight is not going to blow up pieces of Mars and create its own artificial vibrations, but it will be in the coming months and years, keeping its unprecedented high-tech ear on the ground, looking for Mars – all in the name of understanding what makes Mars and Teak and why its planetary destiny turned out to be so different Very much from that of the earth.

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